Our brains are the seat of all we are. Every thought and action we perform is an output of our brain. So understandably the thought of an affliction striking the brain can be terrifying.
Brain cancer is a rare but devastating form of cancer accounting for 2% of all cancer cases worldwide. Brain cancer refers to the abnormal growth and division of cells within the brain. Brain tumours can be either benign or cancerous and cancerous brain tumours are further split into primary brain tumours that start in the brain and secondary tumours that start elsewhere in the body and spread (metastasize) to the brain.
Whether benign or a malignant tumour can increase the volume of the brain which creates pressure in the tight skull space. The bony skull is extremely hard and rigid. Any encroachment in this tight space increases intracranial pressure which can lead to brain damage, coma, and even death.
Types Of Brain Tumours
The first major classification of types of brain tumours is benign and malignant tumours. Benign brain tumours are the least aggressive and slowest growing tumours. They do not have cancerous cells and have a good prognosis after treatment.
Malignant or cancerous brain tumours arise from brain cells, supportive cells, and other tissue found in and around the brain. These are high-grade tumours. Grading for tumours involves rating a growth on a scale of 1 to 4 with low-grade scores being 1 and 2, and 3 and 4 are high grade. Benign tumours are low grade which is slow growing, contained, less likely to spread, and unlikely to return after removal. On the other hand, malignant or cancerous tumours are high grade which means they are fast growing, spread to surrounding tissues, and are more likely to return after removal.
Cancerous tumours are further divided into primary and secondary tumours.
Primary cancerous tumours originate within the brain itself while secondary tumours are a result of metastasis from tumours in other organ systems, commonly from the lungs.
Primary tumours are rarer and the most common types of primary brain tumours are gliomas and meningiomas. Gliomas affect the glial cells which are supportive cells in the brain that provide nourishment and structural support to neurons. Gliomas account for 50% of all primary brain tumours.
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4. Primary Health Centres (PHCs) Under the National Health Mission (NHM), Primary Health Centre (PHC) are established to cover a population of 30,000 in rural areas and 20,000 in hilly, tribal and desert areas.
PHCs are established to cover defined population. As per the Rural Health Statistics-2019, as on 31.03.2019, a total of 24,855 rural PHCs and 5,190 urban PHCs have been functional in the country. State-wise details including for Rajasthan are given below:
NUMBER OF PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES (PHCs) FUNCTIO
5. Procedure for Research on Vaccine The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) has informed that the requirements and guidelines to conduct clinical trial or grant of permission for marketing of new drugs including vaccines are prescribed under New Drugs and Clinical Trials Rules, 2019.
Further, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), an autonomous organisation of the Department of Health Research, has informed that the stages of vaccine development include the following steps:
6. Availability of Medical Colleges At present, there are 541 medical colleges (280 under Government and 261 under Private) in the country with an intake capacity of 80,312 MBBS seats annually. The State-wise number of medical college is given below:
7. Conversion of Passenger Compartments into Isolation Wards 5601 coaches have been converted into Covid Care Centers by Indian Railways (IR) in the months of March, April, May and June of 2020 to combat Corona virus pandemic. The Zonal Railway wise details of the conversion of these coaches are as under:
Coaches converted into
8. Indigenous Manufacturing of Medical Equipments India is 86% import-dependent on Medical Devices/equipments. The various segments of devices/equipments imported are Electronics Equipment, Surgical Instruments, Conusumable& Disposables, IVD Reagent and Implants.
Various schemes/initiatives have been formulated to promote domestic manufacturing of medical devices/equipments and attract large investment in the sector:
National Biopharma Mission.
DBT-AMTZ COMManD [Covid-19 Medtech Manufacturing Development] Conso
9. Reduction in Tobacco usage Several steps have been taken by the Government to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use. Some of the major steps are as under;
The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has enacted a comprehensive legislation, namely the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA 2003) to discourage the consumption of tobacco products in order to protect the masses from the health hazar
10. TB cases in India As per the Global TB Report 2019, the estimated number of cases and death rate in India has reduced from 2015 as under:
11. Nursing Colleges State-wise number of nursing colleges functional in the country is given below:
State-wise distribution of Nursing Colleges as on 31st March, 2020
12. National Bio-Material Centre National Biomaterial Centre has been established at National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO), Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, an organisation under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and is fully functional.
The Government of India is implementing National Organ Transplant Programme (NOTP) to promote organ donation across the country. Under this programme, an apex level National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisa
13. Increase in Mental Health issues during the Pandemic Realizing the impact that COVID-19 may have on the mental health of the people, including children, the Government has taken a number of initiatives to provide psychosocial support during COVID-19. These initiatives include:
Setting up of a 24/7 helpline to provide psychosocial support, by mental health professionals, to the entire affected population, divided into different target groups viz children, adult, elderly, women and healthcare workers.
14. COVID-19 Fatalities amongst Healthcare Workers Health is a State subject. Such data is not maintained at Central level by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. However, database of those seeking relief under the “Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Insurance Package” is maintained at national level.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare provided guideline on Infection Prevention and Control practices to the State Governments. Training was conducted for all the States in the month of March 2020. A training plan was also conveyed to Stat
15. Who Guidelines on COVID Tests The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended 0.14 samples per day per 1000 or 140 tests per day per million population. As on 19th September, 2020 India is conducting COVID -19 tests at a rate of 875 tests/million population per day. This is more than 6 times the WHO recommendations. For Tamil Nadu this stands at 1145 tests per million population per day.
Indian Council of Medical Research in its advisory (issued on 4th September 2020) has allowed for ‘on-demand’ testing. Thi
16. Strategic Approach to Combat Covid-19 India would be following a scenario based approach for the following possible scenarios, (i) Travel related case reported in India, (ii) Local transmission of COVID-19, (iii) Large outbreaks amenable to containment, (iv) Wide-spread community Transmission of COVID-19 disease and (v) India becomes endemic for COVID-19.
Currently many areas are experiencing large outbreaks amenable to containment. Hence a containment strategy is being followed by Government of India.
17. Early Indications of COVID 19 Pandemic Outbreak in the country Ministry of Health & Family Welfare was following the evolving situation in China, when WHO India alerted our country on 6th January, 2020 about outbreak of pneumonia of unknown origin in Wuhan city of China. The Joint Monitoring Group under Director General of Health Services to met on 8th January, 2020 to review the evolving situation in China and deliberated on public health preparedness and response strategies for the same.
Before the nationwide lockdown, a series of ac
18. Status of Development of COVID Vaccine in India While the Govt. and Industry are trying their best to make available a safe and effective vaccine for COVID-19 at the earliest, it is difficult to comment on the exact timelines in view of various complex pathways involved in vaccine development.
The Government has constituted a high-level National Expert Group on vaccine administration for COVID-19 which is chaired by Member, Niti Aayog and co-chaired by Secretary, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. Other representatives are: Secretary,
19. Checking Overcharging by Private Hospitals Government of India has taken a series of actions to prevent, control and mitigate the impact of COVID-19. India followed a “whole of Government” and “whole of society” approach. Hon’ble Prime Minister, a High level Group of Ministers (GoM), Cabinet Secretary, Committee of Secretaries and senior officers in MoHFW continue to monitor public health response to COVID-19 in the country.
The public health actions were taken in a pre-emptive, pro-active,
20. Malnutrition in India Malnutrition is not the direct cause of death among children under five years of age. Though it can increase morbidity and mortality by reducing resistance to infections. Malnourished children are more vulnerable to any infection than normal children. The overall under five mortality rate (number of deaths per thousand live births) has reduced from 74.3 as reported by 3rd National Family Health Survey report released in 2005-06 to 49.7 as 4th National Family Health Survey report released in 2015-16.
21. NDMA Guidelines on Lockdown In terms of Section 6 (2) (i) of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 (DM Act, 2005), National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), on being satisfied that the country is threatened by the spread of COVID – 19 pandemic, has been directing Union Home Secretary, being the Chairperson of the National Executive Committee (NEC), to take measures and to issue necessary guidelines so as to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the country. Accordingly, NEC has been issuing guidelines about the Lockdown and Unlo
23. AYUSH Ministry supports a novel e-marathon as part of the Ayush for Immunity Campaign The Ministry of AYUSH has joined hands with Rajagiri College of Social Sciences and Rajagiri Business School, Kochi to organise a novel e-marathon, as a part of the Ministry’s three-month campaign called “Ayush for Immunity”, focussing on desirable health-promotive and disease preventive steps. Combining technology, physical run, charity and wellness programs, this e-event is expected to add positivity and good health to the lives of the participants.
25. eSanjeevani OPD of Health Ministry completes 3 lakh tele-consultations within six months of launch eSanjeevani OPD platform of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has completed 3 lakh tele-consultations. This landmark milestone has been achieved within a short period of six months since its launch.
eSanjeevani OPD services have enabled patient-to-doctor telemedicine in midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has helped in containing the spread of COVID by ensuring physical distancing and has simultaneously enabled provisions for non-COVID essential healthcare. The number of high tele-consulta
26 ICMR Scientist-B vacancy Recruitment 2020 #Scientist & Research4 Days Remaining for Apply Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) under Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India will conduct a computer-based examination on 01/11/2020 for recruitment of various Scientist-B (Medical/Non-Medical) vacancy posts and hence invites online application on prescribed format from Indian nationals for filling up these Government Job Vacancy posts of Scientist-B in various disciplines. (Advertisement No. ICMR/SC-B/2020)
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27 UPSC Government Jobs Vacancy Recruitment 10/2020 #UPSC3 Days Remaining for Apply Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), Dholpur House, New Delhi invites Online application on prescribed recruitment form by 01/10/2020 for following Sarkari Naukri Government Jobs vacancy posts especially Specialist (Faculty (Assistant Professor) and Assistant Director (Statistics - Census Operations etc. in various Central Government Departments/Organisations in the prescribed online format (Advt. No. 10/2020).
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28 Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) Government Jobs Vacancy Recruitment 11/2020#UPSC17 Days Remaining for Apply UPSC Government Jobs Vacancy Recruitment 11/2020
Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), Dholpur House, New Delhi invites Online application on prescribed recruitment form by 15/10/2020 for following Sarkari Naukri Government Jobs vacancy posts especially Specialist (Faculty - Assistant Professor), Foreman, Scientific Assistant, Engineer etc. in various Central Government Departments/Organisations in the prescribed online format (Advt. No. 11/2020).
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