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भारतीय राष्ट्रीय पंचांग या 'भारत का राष्ट्रीय कैलेंडर' भारत में उपयोग में आने वाला सरकारी सिविल कैलेंडर है। यह शक संवत पर आधारित है और ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर के साथ-साथ 22 मार्च 1957 से अपनाया गया। भारत मे यह भारत का राजपत्र, आकाशवाणी द्वारा प्रसारित समाचार और भारत सरकार द्वारा जारी संचार विज्ञप्तियों मे ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है।

चैत्र भारतीय राष्ट्रीय पंचांग का प्रथम माह होता है। राष्ट्रीय कैलेंडर की तिथियाँ ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर की तिथियों से स्थायी रूप से मिलती-जुलती हैं। चन्द्रमा की कला (घटने व बढ़ने) के अनुसार माह में दिनों की संख्या निर्धारित होती है |

कैलेंडर का प्रारूप

  माह देशज नाम अवधि शुरुआत की तिथि (ग्रेगोरियन)
1 चैत्र चैत 30/31 मार्च 22*
2 वैशाख बैसाख 31 अप्रेल 21
3 ज्येष्ठ जेठ / हाड़ 31 मई 22
4 आषाढ़ असाढ़ 31 जून 22
5 श्रावण सावन 31 जुलाई 23
6 भाद्रपद भादों 31 अगस्त 23
7 आश्विन आसिन 30 सितम्बर 23
8 कार्तिक कार्तिक 30 अक्टूबर 23
9 अग्रहायण/मार्गशीर्ष अगहन 30 नवम्बर 22
10 पौष पूस 30 दिसम्बर 22
11 माघ माघ 30 जनवरी 21
12 फाल्गुन फागुन 30 फरवरी 20

अधिवर्ष में, चैत्र मे 31 दिन होते हैं और इसकी शुरुआत 21 मार्च को होती है। वर्ष की पहली छमाही के सभी महीने 31 दिन के होते है, जिसका कारण इस समय कांतिवृत्त में सूरज की धीमी गति है।

महीनों के नाम पुराने, हिंदू चन्द्र-सौर पंचांग से लिए गये हैं इसलिए वर्तनी भिन्न रूपों में मौजूद है और कौन सी तिथि किस कैलेंडर से संबंधित है इसके बारे मे भ्रम बना रहता है।

शक् युग, का पहला वर्ष सामान्य युग के 78 वें वर्ष से शुरु होता है, अधिवर्ष निर्धारित करने के शक् वर्ष मे 78 जोड़ दें- यदि ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर में परिणाम एक अधिवर्ष है, तो शक् वर्ष भी एक अधिवर्ष ही होगा।

अंगीकरण

इस कैलेंडर को कैलेंडर सुधार समिति द्वारा 1957 में, भारतीय पंचांग और समुद्री पंचांग के भाग के रूप मे प्रस्तुत किया गया। इसमें अन्य खगोलीय आँकड़ों के साथ काल और सूत्र भी थे जिनके आधार पर हिंदू धार्मिक पंचांग तैयार किया जा सकता था, यह सारी कवायद इसको एक समरसता प्रदान करने की थी। इस प्रयास के बावजूद, पुराने स्रोतों पर आधारित स्थानीय रूपान्तर जैसे सूर्य सिद्धांत अभी भी मौजूद हैं।

इसका आधिकारिक उपयोग 1 चैत्र, 1879 शक् युग, या 22 मार्च 1957 में शुरू किया था। हालांकि, सरकारी अधिकारियों इस कैलेंडर के नये साल के बजाय धार्मिक कैलेंडरों के नये साल को तरजीह देते प्रतीत होते हैं।[.

राष्ट्रीय पंचांग

सुधार समिति ने राष्ट्रीय पंचांग नामक एक धार्मिक कैलेंडर को भी औपचारिक रूप दिया। यह, अन्य कई क्षेत्रीय चन्द्र-सौर पंचांग पर आधारित पंचांगों की तरह 10 वीं शताब्दी के सूर्य सिद्धांत पर आधारित था।[तथ्य वांछित]

शब्द पंचांग संस्कृत के पंचांगम् (पाँच+अंग) से लिया गया है, जो कि पंचांग के पाँच अंगों का द्योतक है: चंद्र दिन,चांद्र मास, अर्ध दिन, सूर्य और चंद्रमा के कोण और सौर दिन।[तथ्य वांछित]

भारतीय राष्ट्रीय पंचांग
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