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ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर (Gregorian calendar) {ग्रेगोरी कालदर्शक}, दुनिया में लगभग हर जगह उपयोग किया जाने वाला कालदर्शक या तिथिपत्रक है। यह जूलियन कालदर्शक (Julian calendar) का रूपान्तरण है।[1] इसे पोप ग्रेगोरी (Pope Gregory XIII) ने लागू किया था। इससे पहले जूलियन कालदर्शक प्रचलन में था, लेकिन उसमें अनेक त्रुटियाँ थीं, जिन्हें ग्रेगोरी कालदर्शक में दूर कर दिया गया।

स्वरूप

ग्रेगोरी कालदर्शक की मूल इकाई दिन होता है। 365 दिनों का एक वर्ष होता है, किन्तु हर चौथा वर्ष ३६६ दिन का होता है जिसे अधिवर्ष (लीप का साल) कहते हैं। सूर्य पर आधारित पंचांग हर 146,097 दिनों बाद दोहराया जाता है। इसे 400 वर्षों में बाँटा गया है और यह 20871 सप्ताह (7 दिनों) के बराबर होता है। इन 400 वर्षों में 303 वर्ष आम वर्ष होते हैं, जिनमे 365 दिन होते हैं। और 97 लीप वर्ष होते हैं, जिनमे 366 दिन होते हैं। इस प्रकार हर वर्ष में 365 दिन, 5 घंटे, 49 मिनट और 12 सेकेंड होते है।

पुराने (जूलियन) कालदर्शक में सुधार

जूलियन कैलेंडर में 365 दिन 6 घंटे का वर्ष माना जाता था, परंतु ऐसा मानने से प्रत्येक वर्ष क्रांति-पातिक सौर वर्ष से (5 घंटा 48 मिनट 46 सेकंड की अपेक्षा 6 घंटे अर्थात्) 11 मिनट 14 सेकंड अधिक लेते हैं। यह आधिक्य 400 वर्षों में 3 दिन से कुछ अधिक हो जाता है। इस भूल पर सर्वप्रथम रोम के पोप (13वें) ग्रेगरी ने सूक्ष्मतापूर्वक विचार किया। उन्होंने ईसवी सन् 1582 में हिसाब लगाकर देखा कि नाइस नगर के धर्म-सम्मेलन के समय से, जो ईसवी सन 325 में हुआ था, पूर्वोक्त आधिक्य 10 दिन का हो गया है, जिसको गणना में नहीं लेने के कारण तारीख 10 दिन पीछे चल रही थी। इस विचार से उन्होंने नेपुलस् के ज्योतिषी एलाय सियस लिलियस (Aloysitus lilius) के परामर्श से 1582 ईस्वी में 5 अक्टूबर को (10 दिन जोड़कर) 15 वीं अक्टूबर निश्चित किया और तब से यह नियम निकाला कि जो शताब्दी वर्ष 4 से पूरी तरह विभाजित होने की बजाय यदि 400 से पूरी तरह विभाजित हो तभी उसे अधिवर्ष (लीप ईयर) माना जाए अन्यथा नहीं।[2] इस नवीन पद्धति का आरंभ चूँकि पोप ग्रेगरी ने किया, इसलिए इसको ग्रेगोरियन पद्धति अथवा नवीन पद्धति (न्यू स्टाइल) कहा गया।[3]

नवीन (ग्रेगोरियन) कालदर्शक की स्वीकृति

इस पद्धति को भिन्न-भिन्न ईसाई देशों में भिन्न-भिन्न वर्षों में स्वीकार किया गया। इससे इन देशों का इतिहास पढ़ते समय इस बात को ध्यान में रखना आवश्यक है।[3] इस नवीन पद्धति (नये कैलेंडर) को इटली, फ्रांस, स्पेन और पुर्तगाल ने 1582 ई० में, प्रशिया, जर्मनी के रोमन कैथोलिक प्रदेश स्विट्जरलैंड, हॉलैंड और फ़्लैंडर्स ने 1583 ई० में, पोलैंड ने 1586 ई० में, हंगरी ने 1587 ई० में, जर्मनी और नीदरलैंड के प्रोटेस्टेंट प्रदेश तथा डेनमार्क ने 1700 ई० में, ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य ने 1752 ई० में, जापान ने 1972 ई० में चीन ने 1912 ई० में, बुल्गारिया ने 1915 ई० में, तुर्की और सोवियत रूस ने 1917 ई० में तथा युगोस्लाविया और रोमानिया ने 1919 ई० में अपनाया।[4]

पुराने से नये कैलेंडर की तारीख में अंतर

1582 ईस्वी के बाद 1700 ई० में 28 फरवरी तक पुराने कैलेंडर से नये कैलेंडर की तारीख में 10 दिन की ही वृद्धि रही।[5] 1600 ई० शताब्दी वर्ष होने से चूँकि 400 से पूरी तरह विभाजित होता था अतः वह नयी पद्धति से भी अधिवर्ष (लीप ईयर) ही होता। अतः उसमें तारीख में अंतर करने हेतु 1 दिन की वृद्धि नहीं हुई। तात्पर्य यह कि पुराने कैलेंडर से नये कैलेंडर में तारीख बदलते हुए उन्हीं शताब्दी वर्षों में पूर्वोक्त 10 दिन से एक-एक दिन क्रमशः बढ़ाया जाएगा जिन शताब्दी वर्षों में 400 से पूरी तरह भाग नहीं लगता। अर्थात् 1700 ईस्वी की 28 फरवरी के बाद नये कैलेंडर की तारीख बनाने के लिए 10 दिन की जगह 11 दिन जोड़े जाएँगे। इसी प्रकार 1800 ई० की 28 फरवरी के बाद 12 दिन और 1900 ई० की 28 फरवरी के बाद 13 दिन जोड़े जाएँगे।[6] पुनः 2000 ई० (शताब्दी वर्ष) 400 से पूरी तरह विभाजित होने के कारण यह वृद्धि 13 दिन की ही रहेगी, अतिरिक्त 1 दिन नहीं बढ़ेगा।

महीनों का क्रम: नाम व उनमें दिनों की संख्या

  • 1: जनवरी 31,
  • 2: फरवरी 28 या 29,
  • 3: मार्च 31,
  • 4: अप्रैल 30,
  • 5: मई 31,
  • 6: जून 30,
  • 7: जुलाई 31,
  • 8: अगस्त 31,
  • 9: सितंबर 30,
  • 10: अक्टूबर 31,
  • 11: नवंबर 30,
  • 12: दिसम्बर 31
ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर (Gregorian calendar)
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