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Between 1901 and 2019, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 597 times to 950 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 919 individuals and 24 organizations. Below, you can view the full list of Nobel Prizes and Nobel Laureates.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1975

Eugenio Montale
“for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1975

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1975

Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich and Tjalling C. Koopmans
“for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”

1974

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
“for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974

Paul J. Flory
“for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade
“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974

Eyvind Johnson
“for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom”

Harry Martinson
“for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1974

Seán MacBride

Eisaku Sato

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1974

Gunnar Myrdal and Friedrich August von Hayek
“for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena”

1973

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever
“for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”
Brian David Josephson
“for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973

Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson
“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen
“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1973

Patrick White
“for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1973

Henry A. Kissinger

Le Duc Tho

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1973

Wassily Leontief
“for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems”

1972

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

Christian B. Anfinsen
“for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”
Stanford Moore and William H. Stein
“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter
“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1972

Heinrich Böll
“for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1972

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1972

John R. Hicks and Kenneth J. Arrow
“for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory”

1971

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971

Dennis Gabor
“for his invention and development of the holographic method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971

Gerhard Herzberg
“for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
“for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971

Pablo Neruda
“for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent’s destiny and dreams”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1971

Willy Brandt

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1971

Simon Kuznets
“for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development”

1970

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén
“for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics”

Louis Eugène Félix Néel
“for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970

Luis F. Leloir
“for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn
“for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1970

Norman E. Borlaug

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1970

Paul A. Samuelson
“for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science”

1969

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969

Murray Gell-Mann
“for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969

Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel
“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1969

Samuel Beckett
“for his writing, which – in new forms for the novel and drama – in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1969

International Labour Organization (I.L.O.)

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969

Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen
“for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes”

1968

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968

Luis Walter Alvarez
“for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968

Lars Onsager
“for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968

Yasunari Kawabata
“for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1968

René Cassin

1967

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967

Hans Albrecht Bethe
“for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter
“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967

Miguel Angel Asturias
“for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1967

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1966

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966

Alfred Kastler
“for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966

Robert S. Mulliken
“for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Peyton Rous
“for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

Charles Brenton Huggins
“for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966

Shmuel Yosef Agnon
“for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people”

Nelly Sachs
“for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s destiny with touching strength”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1966

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1965

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965

Robert Burns Woodward
“for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod
“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1965

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov
“for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1965

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

1964

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
“for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen
“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964

Jean-Paul Sartre
“for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1964

Martin Luther King Jr.

1963

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Eugene Paul Wigner
“for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles”
Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen
“for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963

Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta
“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley
“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1963

Giorgos Seferis
“for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1963

Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross)

Ligue des Sociétés de la Croix-Rouge (League of Red Cross Societies)

1962

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962

Lev Davidovich Landau
“for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962

Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew
“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962

John Steinbeck
“for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1962

Linus Carl Pauling

1961

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Robert Hofstadter
“for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons”

Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
“for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961

Melvin Calvin
“for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Georg von Békésy
“for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1961

Ivo Andric
“for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1961

Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld

1960

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960

Donald Arthur Glaser
“for the invention of the bubble chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960

Willard Frank Libby
“for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Peter Brian Medawar
“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960

Saint-John Perse
“for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1960

Albert John Lutuli

1959

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain
“for their discovery of the antiproton”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959

Jaroslav Heyrovsky
“for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg
“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1959

Salvatore Quasimodo
“for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1959

Philip J. Noel-Baker

1958

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958

Frederick Sanger
“for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum
“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”
Joshua Lederberg
“for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak
“for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1958

Georges Pire

1957

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee
“for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957

Lord (Alexander R.) Todd
“for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957

Daniel Bovet
“for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1957

Albert Camus
“for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1957

Lester Bowles Pearson

1956

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956

Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov
“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1956

Juan Ramón Jiménez
“for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1956

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1955

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Willis Eugene Lamb
“for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum”

Polykarp Kusch
“for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955

Vincent du Vigneaud
“for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
“for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1955

Halldór Kiljan Laxness
“for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1955

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1954

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Max Born
“for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction”

Walther Bothe
“for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954

Linus Carl Pauling
“for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954

Ernest Miller Hemingway
“for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1954

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

1953

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953

Frits Zernike
“for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953

Hermann Staudinger
“for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Adolf Krebs
“for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

Fritz Albert Lipmann
“for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill
“for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1953

George Catlett Marshall

1952

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952

Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge
“for their invention of partition chromatography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Selman Abraham Waksman
“for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1952

François Mauriac
“for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1952

Albert Schweitzer

1951

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
“for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951

Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg
“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

Max Theiler
“for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951

Pär Fabian Lagerkvist
“for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1951

Léon Jouhaux

1950

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950

Cecil Frank Powell
“for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950

Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder
“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950

Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell
“in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1950

Ralph Bunche

1949

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949

Hideki Yukawa
“for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949

William Francis Giauque
“for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Walter Rudolf Hess
“for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949

William Faulkner
“for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1949

Lord (John) Boyd Orr of Brechin

1948

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
“for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948

Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
“for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Hermann Müller
“for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948

Thomas Stearns Eliot
“for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1948

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1947

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947

Sir Edward Victor Appleton
“for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947

Sir Robert Robinson
“for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
“for their discovery of the course of the catalyti

All Nobel Prizes Between 1947 and 1975
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