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Different types of Awards and Prizes

Nobel Prize
• It is the most coveted international award of the world.
• It was instituted by the inventor of dynamite, Alfred Bernard Nobel (1833-96)
• The award is given on Dec.10, which is the death anniversary of its founder.
• Nobel made a trust from the money that he earned through the patent of his invention whose interest is used to give the money for the Nobel Prizes.
• Nobel Prize is given every year to those eminent person who have made pioneering achievements in the field of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Peace, Literature and Economics. 
• Apart from Economics, all other categories have been given since 1901. Economics Nobel Prize was in 1967 and was first given in 1969.

Pulitzer Prize
• It was instituted in 1970 and named after the US Publisher Joseph Pulitzer.
• It is conferred annually in the USA for accomplishments in journalism, literature and music.

Magsaysay Awards
• They were instituted in 1957 and named after Ramon Magsaysay, the late President of Philippines, who died in an air crash.
• This award is given annually on August 31, for outstanding contributions to Public service, community leadership, journalism, literature and creative arts and international understanding.
• They are often regarding as the Nobel Prize of Asia.

Booker Prize
• It is the highest literary award given to the authors of British, Irish and Commonwealth countries.
• It is instituted in 1968 by the Booker Company and the British Publishers Association along the lines of Pulitzer Prize of US.
• Booker Prize has been renamed as Man Booker Prize, as the sponsorship has been taken by the Man Group, an international stockbroker.

Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding 
• It was instituted in 1965 by the Government of India.
• It is given annually to persons for outstanding contributions to the promotion of international understanding and goodwill among the people of the world.

Oscar Awards
• These awards were instituted in 1929 and conferred annually by the Academy of Motion Pictures in USA.
• These are considered the most prestigious award in the cinema world.
• The first Indian to get an Oscar was Bhanu Athaiya for the movie ‘Gandhi’.
• Satyajit Ray was the First Indian who was awarded Oscar for lifetime achievements in cinema in 1992.

Right Livelihood Award
• It was instituted in 1980 by the Right Livelihood Society, London.
• It is renowned as alternate Nobel Award to promote and contribute in the field of environment and social justice.

Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize
• It was instituted in 1995 by the Government of India.
• It is presented for international peace on the lines of Nobel Prize.

UNESCO Peace Prize
• It is presented by United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for extraordinary contribution for international peace.

UNESCO Human Right Award
• It is also presented by UNESCO for contributions in the field of Human Rights Awareness.
• It is given every alternate year.

UN Human Right Award
• It is presented by United Nation (UN) for personal contribution for the cause of human rights.
• It is presented every sixth year.

World Food Prize
• It is presented by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), one of the branches of UNO, for the cause of agriculture and food development.

Olympic Gold Order
• It is presented by the International Olympic Committee for distinguished services in the development of the OLYMPIC MOVEMENT.

Indira Gandhi Award for International Peace, Disarmament and Development
• It is presented by Indira Gandhi Memorial Fund for specialized contribution in the filed of International disarmament and development.

Bharat Ratna
• It is the highest civilian award of India. It is presented by the Government of India.
• It is presented for exceptional public service and rarest achievements in the field of art, literature and science.
• It was instituted in 1954 and the first recipient was Dr. Radhakrishnan.
• Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award for distinguished services in any field including Government service.
• Padma Bhushan and Padma Shree are the other important civilian awards.

Bhartiya Jnanpeeth Awards
• It was instituted in 1965 and is given for distinguished works in any reconised language by a scholar.

Sahitya Akademi Award
• It was instituted in 1955 and is given for any exclusive writing in any of the 22 languages including English literature during last 5 years.

Murtidevi Award
• It was constituted in 1948 and is given in any Indian language or English literature, for distinguished contribution to Indian values.

Saraswati Samman
• It was instituted in 1991 by the K. K. Birla Foundation and is given for any distinguished literary work made during last 10 years in any of the Indian language.

Tansen Awards
• These awards are given by the Government of Madhya Pradesh for the outstanding contribution in the field of music.

Vyas Samman
• It was instituted in 1992 by K. K. Birla Foundation for outstanding contribution to Hindi literature.

Iqbal Samman
• These awards are given by the Government of Madhya Pradesh for the outstanding contribution in the field of literature.

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Awards
• These awards are given to the Indian scientist for their exceptional performance.

R.D. Birla Award
• These awards are given in the field of medical sciences.

Dhanvantri Award
• These awards are given for the extra ordinary performance in medical sciences.

Arjuna Awards
• These were instituted in 1961and given by Sports Ministry, Government of India.
• These are given for the special achievements in different types of sports.

Dronacharya Awards
• These were instituted in 1985 and given by Sports Ministry, Government of India.
• These are given to sports coaches.

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna
• It was instituted in 1962 and is presented for commendable display by the players.

Gallantry Awards
• Param Vir Chakra : It is India’s highest award for bravery. 
• Mahavir Chakra : It is the second highest gallantry award. 
• Vir Chakra : It is the third highest gallantry award. 
• Ashok Chakra : It is the highest peace-time gallantry award. 

Different types of Awards and Prizes
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