UNIX® License PlateUNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the 1960s, and has been under constant development ever since. By operating system, we mean the suite of programs which make the computer work. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops.
UNIX systems also have a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to Microsoft Windows which provides an easy to use environment. However, knowledge of UNIX is required for operations which aren't covered by a graphical program, or for when there is no windows interface available, for example, in a telnet session. Types of UNIX
The Linux PenguinThere are many different versions of UNIX, although they share common similarities. The most popular varieties of UNIX are Sun Solaris, GNU/Linux, and MacOS X.
Here in the School, we use Solaris on our servers and workstations, and Fedora Linux on the servers and desktop PCs. The UNIX operating system
The UNIX operating system is made up of three parts; the kernel, the shell and the programs. The kernel
The kernel of UNIX is the hub of the operating system: it allocates time and memory to programs and handles the filestore and communications in response to system calls.
As an illustration of the way that the shell and the kernel work together, suppose a user types rm myfile (which has the effect of removing the file myfile). The shell searches the filestore for the file containing the program rm, and then requests the kernel, through system calls, to execute the program rm on myfile. When the process rm myfile has finished running, the shell then returns the UNIX prompt % to the user, indicating that it is waiting for further commands. The shell
The shell acts as an interface between the user and the kernel. When a user logs in, the login program checks the username and password, and then starts another program called the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter (CLI). It interprets the commands the user types in and arranges for them to be carried out. The commands are themselves programs: when they terminate, the shell gives the user another prompt (% on our systems).
The adept user can customise his/her own shell, and users can use different shells on the same machine. Staff and students in the school have the tcsh shell by default.
The tcsh shell has certain features to help the user inputting commands.
Filename Completion - By typing part of the name of a command, filename or directory and pressing the [Tab] key, the tcsh shell will complete the rest of the name automatically. If the shell finds more than one name beginning with those letters you have typed, it will beep, prompting you to type a few more letters before pressing the tab key again.
History - The shell keeps a list of the commands you have typed in. If you need to repeat a command, use the cursor keys to scroll up and down the list or type history for a list of previous commands.
Files and processes
Everything in UNIX is either a file or a process.
A process is an executing program identified by a unique PID (process identifier).
A file is a collection of data. They are created by users using text editors, running compilers etc.
Examples of files:
a document (report, essay etc.) the text of a program written in some high-level programming language instructions comprehensible directly to the machine and incomprehensible to a casual user, for example, a collection of binary digits (an executable or binary file); a directory, containing information about its contents, which may be a mixture of other directories (subdirectories) and ordinary files.
The Directory Structure
All the files are grouped together in the directory structure. The file-system is arranged in a hierarchical structure, like an inverted tree. The top of the hierarchy is traditionally called root (written as a slash / )
Unix File Structure
In the diagram above, we see that the home directory of the undergraduate student "ee51vn" contains two sub-directories (docs and pics) and a file called report.doc.
The full path to the file report.doc is "/home/its/ug1/ee51vn/report.doc" Starting an UNIX terminal
To open an UNIX terminal window, click on the "Terminal" icon from Applications/Accessories menus.
An UNIX Terminal window will then appear with a % prompt, waiting for you to start entering commands.
City Zone Established on May 2008 in V S Centre , Opp - Viswakarma Timber , Near - Uma Cinema , Pirmohani , Kadamkuan , Patna - 800 003 .City Zone computer education and training institute provides quality computer education at a very affordable fees to uplift the people from rural areas and the financial weaker sections of the society. Students can purely benefit from the computer courses. Vishwakarma Udhayami Smajik Sansthan organized, maintained and funded for City Zone.
City Zone offer .... Enjoy this Author Blog/Website visit https://www.facebook.com/cityzoneeducation
if you have any information regarding Job, Study Material or any other information related to career. you can Post your article on our website. Click here to Register & Share your contents.
For Advertisment or any query email us at firstname.lastname@example.org
1. Free Government job study material, old question papers, and mock tests. Here are some of the freely available Government job study material, old question papers, and mock tests.
1. Andhra Pradesh PSC
Mock Test - https://psc.ap.gov.in/(S(trubzeva4f4b2dcsvnzhln1a))/HomePages/MockTest.aspx
2. Arunachal Pradesh PSC
Previous year Question Papers - http://www.appsc.gov.in/PreviousYearQuestionPaper.htm
Model Question Papers and Answers Boo
2. General Knowledge Questions - 12 General Knowledge Questions - 12
Q. Which organisation or bodies decides monetory policy in India?
Answer: RBI Reserve Bank of India.
Q. Which is the largest country of AFRICA?
Q. What type of pollution is caused by the burning of fossil fuels?
Answer: Soil, water and air pollution.
Q. At first paper is invented in which country?
Q. What is the full form of "DBMS"
3. What is the difference between NPR and Population Census? What is the difference between NPR and Population Census?
The recent news about the Cabinet ministry’s fund approval for NPR Census has created confusion among people about these terms. Often used interchangeably, both the terms have completely different meanings. Let’s understand in detail through this article.
After the cabinet today approved an amount of Rs. 8700 crores for population census an Rs. 3900 crore for NPR (National Population Register), a lot o
4. General Knowledge Questions - 1 General Knowledge Questions
1. Blood does not coagulate so long it remains in the circulatory system because of-
A. Pressure of heparin in blood.
B. Pressure of blood.
C. Presence of iron pigments in blood.
D. Constant heart beat.
2. Indian Constitution came into force from-
A. 26th January, 1949
B. 26th November, 1949
C. 26th January, 1950
D. 26th November, 1950
5. About Right to Information Act 2005 About Right to Information Act 2005
Bringing Information to the Citizens
Right to Information Act 2005 mandates timely response to citizen requests for government information. It is an initiative taken by Department of Personnel and Training, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions to provide a– RTI Portal Gateway to the citizens for quick search of information on the details of first Appellate Authorities,PIOs etc. amongst others, besides access
6. General Knowledge Questions - 8 General Knowledge Questions - 8
1. Who was recently appointed as the interim president of BCCI-
A. Jagmohan Dalmia
B. Sunil Gavaskar
C. Sashant Manohar
D. Ravi Shastri
2. In Idnia, due to the influence of retreating monsson, rainfall occurs in the-
A. Coromondol Coast
B. Northern circars coast
C. Konkon Coast
D. Malabar Coast
3. The pale yellowish color of the urine in a normal per
7. Vidyapati (1352–1448), Vidyapati (1352–1448), also known by the sobriquet Maithil Kavi Kokil (the poet cuckoo of Maithili), was a Maithili and Sanskrit poet, writer and polyglot.
Vidyapati's influence was not just restricted to Maithili and Sanskrit literature but also extended to other Eastern literary traditions.The language at the time of Vidyapati, the prakrit-derived late abahatta, had just begun to transition into early versions of the Eastern languages such as Maithili, Bhojpuri etc.
8. General Knowledge Questions - 6 General Knowledge Questions - 6
1. The name of the Indian cricketer who taken ten wickets in one innings of a test cricket match(for men)
A. B.S. Bedi
C. Kapil Dev
D. Anil Kumbley
2. Ecology is the study of interrelations among-
A. Soil and water
B. Man and Environment
C. Organisms and environment
D. Members of a family
3. The world famous athlete Usain Bolt is fro
9. NISHTHA | National Portal of India
NISHTHA | National Portal of India
NISHTHA, India, India Portal, National Portal of India, Government Information, Government Services, National Informatics Centre, NIC, nic, e-Government, e-Governance in India, MeitY
The Department of School Education and Literacy has launched a National Mission to improve learning outcomes at the elementary level through an Integra
11. Top General Knowledge Based Question for Competitive Exam. General Knowledge is a common topic for any examination. So it is the most important subject for everyone. Through this page, you can get a general knowledge about India and abroad, sports, politics, awards, new policies, history etc. If you are preparing for competitive exams like IAS, PCS, Railways, SSC, UPSC, Bank and other state government exams. then this page can help you a lot.
So let’s take a view on Gen
12. Procedure to Download the CA Final Question Papers with Suggested Answers If you want the Past attempt CA final question papers with suggested answers then, you can download it in a few simple steps. The procedure to download is available in this article. Detailed importance is also present in this article. Further, the exam pattern of the CA final is available. From this attempt (November 2019), ICAI has made some changes which are also available in this article.
13. Does Complex Numbers / Imaginary number i exists?? Does Complex Numbers / Imaginary number i exists??
People studying Higher Mathematics are often confused with the existence of Complex Numbers and its Imaginary number “i”.
What are Complex Numbers:
Complex Numbers are numbers whose 1st part is Real while 2nd part is Imaginary and is expressed as a+bi
a –> Real Part
bi –> Imaginary Part and
14. Top 10 Indian Mathematicians and their Contributions It is no doubt that the world today is greatly indebted to the contributions made by Indian mathematicians. One of the most important contribution made by them was the introduction of decimal system as well as the invention of zero. Here are some the famous Indian mathematicians dating back from Indus Valley civilization and Vedas to Modern times.
15. Computer – Some Important Abbreviations Computer – Some Important Abbreviations
Al – Artificial intelligence
ALGOL – Algorithmic Language
ARP – Address resolution Protocol
ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
BINAC – Binary Automatic Computer
BCC – Blind Carbon Copy
Bin – Binary
BASIC – Beginner’
16. Abbreviations Related to Marketing Aptitude: Abbreviations Related to Marketing Aptitude:HNI – High Networth Individual.EOQ – Economic Order quality.FDR – Fixed Deposit Receipts.CNP – Cardholder Not Present.PIN – Personal Identification Number.SEO – Search Engine Optimization.CRM – Customer Relationship Management.BPO – Business Process Outsourcing.VAT – Value Added Tax.IDRA – Industries Development and Regu
17. Vaccines and Immunization | Facts and Information Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate morbidity from infection. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, this results in herd immunity. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. Vaccination is the most eff
18. National Pollution Control Day The National Pollution Control Day is celebrated every year on 2nd of December in India in order to give the honor and memorialize the thousands of human beings who had lost their existence because of the Bhopal gas calamity. Bhopal gas tragedy was happened in the night of 2nd and 3rd December in the year 1984 because of the unintentional discharge of the poisonous chemical known as Methyl Isocyanate (also called MIC) as well as some other chemicals released from the Union Carbide Chemical Plant position
19. Education in Bihar Education in Bihar
The Ancient Period
The appreciation of the importance of education and educational practices in Bihar
date back to the period of Gautama Buddha and Mahavir in the 5th century BC. During that period, the Buddhist and Jainist education started in parallel with the traditional Vedic education. The Buddhist education was based on the Ashtangic (eight-fold) Path, and its distinguishing features were: the introduction of
20. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMPUTER AWARNESS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMPUTER AWARNESS
Which of the following is a storage device that uses rigid, permanently installed magnetic disks to store data/information
A set of instruction is called
22. Right to Information Right to Information is an Act of the Parliament of India to be responsible for setting out the practical rule of the right to information for citizens and substitutes the past Freedom of information Act, 2002. If you are familiar with the RTI concepts, wiling to change the career into RTI field, then we in Wisdomjobs have provided you with all kinds of interview question and answers that you are going to get in the RTI. You can apply to the government jobs if you are good at RTI. If you are good at RTI
23. Statue of Unity: The Tallest Statue in the World There are many more feathers that can be added to the cap when it comes to the Statue of Unity- scheduled to be inaugurated on 31st of October. Standing at a mouth-gaping height of 182 meters, this statue of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is a good 54 meters taller than the Spring Temple Buddha (China). The latter is now the second largest statue in the world.
While the statue is one of PM Modi’s treasured projects, it hasn’t always escaped controversies. Nonetheless, it is the talk of th
24. RRB ALP Answer Key 2018 RRB ALP Answer Key 2018
Railway Recruitment Board is going to conduct the First Stage Computer Based Examination for the selection of ALP/ Technician as per the advertisement no CEN-01/2018. The Recruitment Notification was released for filling up 26502 posts of ALP Technician in various RRBs all over the country and a huge number of candidates filled up the online application for appearing in CBT. The date of Computer Based Examination has been fixed now by the RRB
25. Tips For Students: How to Take Good Notes for Studying Taking good notes throughout the semester may mean the difference between simple study sessions or decoding sessions later on. Your time is too valuable for you to just sit in class, day after day, only going through the motions of taking notes.
Only writing down what’s on the board won’t cut it. Scribbling incoherently won’t help you either. Try these tips for taking neat class notes that will be of use to you later on for studying and review.
Stay focused in class
26 Recruitment of Executive Engineer Civil by Odisha PSC 2020#Odisha11 Days Remaining for Apply Recruitment of Executive Engineer Civil by Odisha PSC 2020
Online applications on prescribed recruitment form are invited by Odisha Public Service Commission (OPSC) from the prospective candidates for recruitment to the following latest Sarkari Naukri vacancy posts of Assistant Executive Engineer (Civil) Group-A in the Panchayati Raj & Drinking Water Department of Government of Odisha. (Advt. No. 04/2020-21)
28 Faculty and Non-Teaching Vacancy Recruitment in NIPER Raebareli#Faculty & Teaching0 Days Remaining for Apply Faculty and Non-Teaching Vacancy Recruitment in NIPER Raebareli
Online Applications on prescribed format are invited at NIPER Raebareli (Uttar Pradesh) from the eligible Indian Nationals for Direct Recruitment/ Deputation for the Teaching Faculty and Non-Teaching Government Job vacancy posts on regular basis through open competition in NIPER Raebareli. (Advt. No. NIPER-R/Recruit/01/2019-20)
NIPER Raebareli Faculty Non-Teaching Recruitment 2020
29 Recruitment of Job Vacancy in Punjab Water Supply and Sanitation Department 2020#Punjab0 Days Remaining for Apply Recruitment of Job Vacancy in Punjab Water Supply and Sanitation Department 2020
Department of Water Supply and Sanitation (DWSS) of Government of Punjab invites application through Online Application Forms from eligible candidates for recruitment to the following latest Sarkari Naukri Govt. Job vacancy posts of Specialists, Coordinators and Facilitators on a Contract Basis in the Department of Water Supply and Sanitation of Government of Punjab. (Advt. N ...
31 India Post GDS Recruitment 2020 for Odisha and Tamil Nadu states#Sarkari Naukri6 Days Remaining for Apply India Post GDS Recruitment 2020 for Odisha and Tamil Nadu states
Online applications on prescribed format are invited by Odisha and Tamil Nadu Circles of Indian Postal Department from eligible candidates for the recruitment selection and engagement to the Government Job vacancy posts of Gramin Dak Sevak (GDS) under Cycle-III/2020-2021 in the posts offices of the respective circles in the states in Odisha and Tamil Nadu states. (Advertisement Numbers - GRAMIN DAK SEVA ...
34 ICMR Scientist-B vacancy Recruitment 2020 #Scientist & Research8 Days Remaining for Apply Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) under Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India will conduct a computer-based examination on 01/11/2020 for recruitment of various Scientist-B (Medical/Non-Medical) vacancy posts and hence invites online application on prescribed format from Indian nationals for filling up these Government Job Vacancy posts of Scientist-B in various disciplines. (Advertisement No. ICMR/SC-B/2020)
ICMR Scientist-B Recruitmen ...
36 IFSCA Assistant Manager officer Recruitment 2020#Sarkari Naukri6 Days Remaining for Apply International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA), a statutory unified regulatory body under the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India is conducting a one-time special recruitment drive for the recruitment of Sarkari Naukri Vacancy posts of Assistant Managers (Officer Grade 'A') from amongst candidates appeared in the Interview of Civil Services Examination - 2019 (Main and Interview) conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). (Advertiseme ...